Auto Accident Collision Repair Shops & Insurance Adjuster Relationships Explained in Answers by Doctor Settlement, J.D.-Auto Accident Insurance Claim Expert
Dr. Settlement, J.D. is Your Guide Through the Sometimes Complicated & Mysterious Auto collision Repair (or Replacement) Process After an Auto Accident
The first few hours-and days, for that matter-following a vehicle accident are filled with such confusion and stress that we yearn for someone who will just take over the entire mess for us. Next month we will discuss just such an expert. But for now, we are going to present some basic principles that will guide you through those first days after the accident when you are making arrangements to get your vehicle repaired (or replaced).
We are fortunate to have the experience and insight of Doctor Settlement, J.D. (Juris Doctor), an acknowledged expert on auto accident insurance claims. That includes experience and expertise of Dr. Settlement in both personal injury insurance claims and in property damage insurance claims. Dr. Settlement's sound advice and insightful insurance tips have assisted many hundreds of claimants achieve the best possible insurance settlements. Doctor Settlement is one of the most highly rated auto insurance claims experts, where he volunteers his time at www.allexperts.com.
How to Identify the Players Without a Program: Basic Definitions In Auto Body Repair and Replacement
- Tortfeasor: the one whose NEGLIGENCE caused the accident and who may or may not have insurance. (Note: be sure you ALWAYS state that you are the victim of negligence, and NOT EVER the victim of an intentional act; insurance ONLY covers negligence, and never intentional torts.)
- Third Party Carrier: the tortfeasor's insurance carrier.
- First Party Carrier: your own insurance carrier.
- Comp/Collision coverage: Your own first party comprehensive (damage from sources OTHER THAN AN AUTO ACCIDENT) and collision (AUTO ACCIDENT) coverage.
- Towing/Rental car coverage: First party coverage clauses that we recommend each insured add to her policy ASAP. Inexpensive coverage and a darn good investment that pays enormous dividends if you should ever need it. See the link below.
- Auto collision repair facility: In pre-PC language days, also known simply as an auto body repair shop-same thing, but dressed up with computers and the like.
- "Preferred Shop", "Approved Shop" or the like: An auto collision repair facility that has been licensed by the insurer to write estimates for it and to repair from those estimates. This can save the insurer from having to hire its own adjuster to travel around and write his own estimates. BUT be careful that they are not selected because they agree to shortchange on the repairs.
- DRP: Direct repair or referral program: This is where they use those preferred or approved shops. This does have some potential for disadvantage to you if participation in the program is dependant upon siding with the insurance company when it comes to the overall quality of the repairs. But in our experience, many fine independent shops also participate in such programs for a number of insurers, so one should investigate the extent of the commitment to the insurance company required of the shop owner.
- "Steering": This is a practice where some insurers will attempt to recommend, direct, encourage, or otherwise influence a consumer to use a repair facility selected by the insurer.
- Depreciation: This is the natural and expected decrease in value due to age, wear and tear, and the like.
- Deductible: This is the amount that you must pay if you use your own insurance to do the repairs. Look at it like the "copay" on a health insurance policy. You selected this amount when you bought your insurance and it is the amount of the repair cost you are responsible for when filing a claim with your own insurance company. Common amounts are $500.00 and $1000.00. With a higher deductible, your premiums are usually lower.
- "OEM PARTS": These are the parts manufactured either by the maker of your vehicle, or by its authorized facility. Also referred to as Original Manufacturer's Equipment.
- "Aftermarket" parts, "Like Kind and Quality Parts", or "Quality Replacement Parts": These are the parts made by some unknown shop overseas and are pushed by the insurance industry as a cost saving for their insureds. Since they are usually not of the same quality or fit as the OEM parts, sometimes customers will hold out for even a used OEM part rather than a new Aftermarket part.
- Betterment or Upgrade: This is a charge that the insurance adjuster might try to collect from you if the repairs or replacements increased the value of your vehicle. For example, what if you got new tires because your worn ones were punctured in the accident? Or what if you insisted on a new OEM generator for your eight year old car instead of accepting a rebuilt one?
- "Pre-loss condition": This is the goal of your auto body repair efforts. It is supposed to be as close as possible to the condition your vehicle was in the instant prior to an accident. You are entitled to be made whole by restoring your vehicle to its pre-loss condition or by compensating you if that cannot be done. The insurance company is not obligated to make it better than it was, however, they can not force you to accept anything less.
- Pre-loss elements defined: Here are the elements of pre-loss condition that one should consider to ensure your vehicle is restored.
- (1) Function. Do all of your automotive systems work, including things like the systems that relate to stopping, steering, and handling of the subject vehicle?
- (2) Appearance. Here the condition of all areas of the vehicle should be restored to at least the same appearance of the subject vehicle just previous to the accident.
- (3) Safety. This is a most important, but frequently overlooked area, probably because most consumers have no idea what to look for. Who among us would know how to figure out whether or not the SRS systems (which control airbags and seatbelt pre-tensioners, etc.) have been set correctly or whether or not the vehicle has been restored to withstand a subsequent impact and absorb that impact and protect the occupants as designed by the manufacturer in the same manner as an undamaged vehicle?
- (4) Value. Has the including restoration of the subject vehicle to a value equal to the value of the vehicle just before impact? See the pages on diminished value, linked below.
- Auto collision Consultants: These are competent intermediaries who are most knowledgeable regarding the topics of which we ordinary consumers know nothing. Why would you think that you can let one of your most valuable personal property items undergo restoration at the hands of people and business whose interests are not necessarily aligned with yours? Before the end of 2006 SettlementCentral.Com will feature a page devoted to selecting and utilizing such auto collision consultants.
Frequently Asked Questions On Car Wreck Repair Answered by Dr. Settlement:
Whose insurance should I use to repair my wrecked Vehicle: the tortfeasor's or mine?
This depends upon three or four factors. First is whether or not the accident is one of clear liability wherein the tortfeasor has or will admit full liability-at least for purposes of property damage restoration. If they will, then the tortfeasor's carrier is the best choice inasmuch as they will not charge you a deductible and they will provide towing and a rental vehicle.
The remaining factors are all addressed above: how much is your first party deductible, do you have towing (if needed for this accident), and do you have first party rental car coverage?
But if I use my own First Party Insurance Coverage won't my premiums be subject to a RATE INCREASE?
Absolutely not! At least if you are not at all at fault in the accident. Your state insurance commissioner (see our links page) has established the conditions under which your carrier may increase your rates. And if you are not at fault in the accident, merely using the coverage that you have paid for cannot subject you to a rate increase.
On the other hand, if you are partially at fault, then this could be categorized as an "at-fault" accident; and when your own first party carrier has to pay out for an at-fault accident, then you may expect that information will be recorded and at the next renewal opportunity it will adversely influence the decision of whether or not you will have a rate increase.
How do I get a rental car while my vehicle is being repaired?
The tortfeasor's carrier has to provide you a rental car for the whole time you are without a car, but your own first party carrier is under no such obligation unless you purchased rental insurance or unless the claim is for Underinsured Motorist (UIM) coverage.
Work with the auto collision repair shop owner and the insurance adjuster to get a rental car for the time your car is being repaired. The insurance company may be able to lower their costs through arranging on a fleet rental basis, and that should turn out to be satisfactory for you, assuming the transportation is satisfactory.
If you elect to go without a rental car, but you are entitled to one from the tortfeasor's insurance, you should demand that the company pay you a per diem cash allowance equivalent to what it would cost them to provide you a rental car.
They tried to put me Into a cheap compact rental car. Don't I get a choice of what kind of car I want to rent while my vehicle is being repaired?
You should have the right to obtain like transportation. That does NOT mean your temporary replacement vehicle will be the same as your damaged vehicle. But at least your replacement should be in the same class in terms of size or specialized use (i.e. truck or van) as your own vehicle.
For example, the fact that I drive a four door Cadillac does not mean that I can refuse an offer of a Chevrolet Impala as an offered replacement rental car. Sure, I could argue that the replacement is not in the same class, luxury, or size as my car. But you know what? That would be whining, and sometimes we just have to make do for awhile with something else, and to give thanks we are alive after the accident. The Impala would be deemed to be a satisfactory rental replacement for my Cadillac.
On the other hand, if they tried to put me into a compact car, I would have the grounds to object since it does not have either the size or the luxury of my own vehicle.
If the repairs have been delayed three months because of parts delay, am I still entitled to a rental car for that entire time?
In general, if you are entitled to a rental car at the outset, it should continue through the repair process, including reasonable delays for parts. These delays would be within the ambit of what we call the consequential damages of the tortfeasor's negligence.
But of course there are exceptions that are not going to be covered. What about an unforeseeable cause of delay, such as strike, or the part no longer in stock anywhere and takes two months to locate? I would run these cases by your state insurance commissioner depending upon the facts of each particular situation.
But irrespective of the situation, you should be in a better position to ask for help if you elected to go with one of the insurance adjuster's approved repair shops. See below: "Choice of Auto collision Repair Facility-'Theirs' or Mine?"
If the shop returned my vehicle in unsatisfactory condition and NOT to my satisfaction, doesn't my rental car authority continue until I am satisfied with the repair work?
I would answer this just the same as above, with a special emphasis on the advantages of using an approved shop as giving you more horsepower to demand two important things: first, that the adjuster both get involved with discussions with the shop owner, and second, that the adjuster continue your rental authority until the car is repaired satisfactorily.
If I have been given a rental car and they decide to total my vehicle, will they continue to give me a rental car until I can find a replacement vehicle?
NO. You are entitled to a rental car only until they make a good faith offer, which is usually defined to be an offer of the actual cash value of your vehicle, also known as a fair market value offer.
In actual practice when they convey their offer to you, it is almost always accompanied with the extension of the rental car authority for a few days (often up to five days) for you to find a replacement vehicle and to purchase and take possession of it.
Do I really have to get three estimates from three auto body shops?
NO. You only have to get one estimate. If the insurance adjuster wants to get his own estimate, then he will send his own property damage appraiser to the location of your vehicle and he will do his own appraisal.
Who wins in a dispute between my auto collision repair expert versus the insurance adjuster and his appraiser regarding what to repair and how to replace parts?
There can be any number of differences between the auto body shop owner and the adjuster as to just what should be done to restore your vehicle. And of course you can see how their positions dictate the outcome they argue for.
The auto collision repair facility wants to restore your car to the best pre-accident condition, and to do so without totally alienating the insurance adjuster, who can be considered helpful in steering business his way in the future.
The insurance adjuster wants to close your file as soon as possible with as little payout as possible.
Your personal investment has been damaged: you are entitled to complete restoration of your investment. Insist on nothing less. If need be, do not hesitate to contact your state insurance commissioner (see our links page). He has established guidelines for the repair of vehicles after an accident. Speak with a representative and sound her out about the situation, but DO NOT FILE A COMPLAINT at this time.
Instead, go back to the insurance adjuster or to his supervisor and let her know what the insurance commission had to say and that if you do not get satisfaction you will not hesitate to file a complaint. THAT is the smart way to use the threat of a complaint as a bargaining chip to your benefit.
By the way, most policies do have what is known as an "appraisal clause" that can be used to resolve differences. Usually the appraisal clause allows you to choose and pay for an appraiser to represent you, and the insurance company will choose and pay for an appraiser to represent them.
Those two will select a third, who will act as an umpire. and a decision by any two of the three is binding. Although either the vehicle owner (you) or the insurance company may invoke the appraisal clause, it is almost always the vehicle owner who asks for this.
But if it gets to this point, then you should seek professional assistance from one of the services that can act as an intermediary on your behalf. Doctor Settlement, J.D. will review some of those services in the future and provide a link to his report on how to use such a service.
Can the insurance adjuster make me select an auto collision repair shop from a list of "approved" shops?
It is not legal for an insurance company to require that you take your business to any particular auto collision repair facility. Although they can "recommend" some auto body shops, the insurance adjusters CANNOT REQUIRE you to use a specific repair facility or to select from a list of their "preferred" shops. That is a practice called "steering", and if you take exception to it, you can report the adjuster to your state insurance commissioner.
You, the consumer, have the right to use any licensed repair facility that you choose. You cannot be forced to take your vehicle to any particular auto collision repair facility. You may choose your own place, but then there may be consequences that you may not like, as explained below.
"Preferred Shop", "Approved Shop" or the like explained
On the other hand, there is nothing wrong with listing those shops that are pre-qualified by the insurance company to write its estimates, and, as you will see below, there could even be advantages to using such a shop. The advantages are notable particularly in: (1) getting your vehicle repairs started earlier without waiting for an insurance appraisal, and (2) in getting the insurance adjuster to go to bat for you in resolving any problems that might develop between you and the repair shop.
First of all, let's understand that the insurance company does not "own" the "Preferred Shop", "Approved Shop" or the like. Nor does the insurance adjuster have any right to dictate to the owner what will happen in any given job. The insurance company has just licensed the "Preferred Shop" to make estimates and to do repair work because through its past experience with the shop, the company believes that the shop is honest and that it will do work with satisfactory results. The shops selected by the insurer are usually part of the insurer's direct repair or referral program (aka "DRP"). The purposes of such programs are supposedly to benefit BOTH the insurance company and the consumer. See the discussion of advantages to using a "preferred shop" below.
Allegations disfavoring using a "preferred shop"
There are allegations that these approved or direct-repair body shops get on the insurance company's list by keeping their costs low, and hence the company will be paying less to repair your vehicle when you use one of those shops. Some people-maybe some who are NOT approved shops-have stated that such preferred shops realize the alleged savings to the insurance companies through business practices that are not favorable to the customer.
The allegations mention such practices as spending less time on repairs, using cheaper parts, and overlooking damages that only an expert could spot. It is alleged that one prominent company even had a requirement that the auto collision repair shop personnel could NOT talk to their customers about their cars until they had cleared it with the insurance adjuster first.
And we are aware that these preferred shops are frequently accused by non-DRP shops of being required by the insurance company to use lower cost non-original parts or other cost-cutting procedures which may not truly restore the safety, appearance, and value of your car to pre-accident condition, and which may jeopardize your factory warranty.
Finally, it is alleged by some that because the insurance companies hold so much power in distributing auto collision repair business, many auto body repair shops can't stay in business unless they stay on those "Preferred Shop" or "Approved Shop" lists.
Arguments in favor of using a "Preferred Shop
We know of a number of such DRP shops that are tops to work with, and that always produce satisfied customers. And we do not believe that they cut corners or unduly favor the insurance adjuster. But maybe that is just because our experience has been limited in one geographic area where business ethics are high.
Take a look at the purposes of the arrangement and you can see that there is nothing shady going on here, although one can plainly understand that the auto accident repair shop owner DOES know who is buttering his bread. Still, he owes a loyalty to you, inasmuch as you are his customer, not the insurance adjuster. So I would not reject an insurance-approved auto collision repair shop just because it has earned the status of being pre-approved. Indeed, many in the auto accident repair shop business would covet such a relationship inasmuch as it is a designation given to the better repair shops.
The first advantage is one of speed. You can get your car estimate done immediately instead of having to wait for three or four days until the insurance adjuster makes it out to your location. Since the auto collision repair shop owner is pre-approved to write his own estimates, your repair order will be ready immediately.
The second advantage to using a pre-approved collision repair facility is in your relationship with and negotiations with the shop owner should things not work out smoothly for a good repair job.
For example, let's say that complications result in the repairs. These could be parts delays, work delays, marginal or unsatisfactory repair jobs, or just your dissatisfaction with the fit and finish of the work product.
If you went out and found your own auto collision repair facility, you are going to be without any real backup to do battle with the shop owner over the dispute. You will be pretty much on your own. Don't expect much assistance if you stormed off to a shop of your own choosing and the shop owner now states that the job is "as good as new", but you still detect problems with his accident repair work. It is your repair contract, and you will have to insist to the shop owner that he needs to take yet another shot at fixing a problem that he thinks is already fixed. Good luck.
By contrast, you will have more horsepower to demand assistance from the insurance adjuster with these kinds of problems if you have your vehicle repaired at an auto body repair shop that is one of the insurance company's approved body shops. You can expect that the insurance adjuster will not hesitate to give the shop owner a call on your behalf. Since the insurance adjuster is a lot more knowledgeable about auto collision repair problems, many consumers believe it is a real advantage to have him on their side when any problems develop with the work of the auto body shop.
I need some help in figuring out where to take my wrecked car for repairs. The towing company took it to a storage yard that abuts one auto body shop, but that one just looks messy to me and I am afraid that their finished work would not be very high quality. There is a big auto accident body shop nearby that advertises on TV, and the insurance adjuster also gave me a couple of choices.
Read the preceding answer to learn of the advantages and disadvantages of using one of those insurance company "Preferred Shop", "Approved Shop" or the like.
As for evaluating the "messy" auto repair shop and the "big shop that advertised on TV", try to gather information on as many of the following categories as you can. Taking a little time to do your research now-instead of just going along with using the shop where the towing company dropped off your vehicle-can pay BIG DIVIDENDS if your auto accident damage is at all significant.
Just the same, don't expect to spend a whole lot of time on this part of the auto accident recovery process UNLESS YOU HAVE AN EXPENSIVE VEHICLE OR YOUR DAMAGES ARE EXTENSIVE. If you have damages that do not involve a lot of money (say, $4,000 and less), or if your vehicle is not worth over $10,000, then it does not make a lot of sense to do the thorough version of this evaluation process. In those cases, make your evaluation on those topics below that you can assess without a lot of time and effort.
(1) Is their equipment sufficient to do the job? It seems that an impressive investment in equipment kind of equates to commitment to quality. No, we do not expect you to know one piece of equipment from another, but the auto accident collision repair facility you choose should do most, if not all of the auto body repairs in house.
- LEARN THEIR REPUTATION. Ask around; find someone with some previous experience or knowledge of that auto body shop. Ask the owner for three customer references. Complaints can be harder to come by, but maybe some dissatisfied customer posted something on the Internet, so Google their name. See if they belong to some local or national association. Give your local Better Business Bureau a call-or look it up online. They will list complaints.
- GUARANTEES & WARRANTIES. Most successful, reliable auto collision repair facilities offer a WRITTEN warranty for their work. Do not accept a verbal guarantee. Get it in writing. The shop should offer a "Lifetime Warranty" on its Body work, and a minimum of "5 years" on refinishing.
- TOUR THE SHOP TO SEE IF:
It is common to send out the mechanical work to specialists, but when you have an expensive car, keeping as much as possible "in house". That way, you also keep the accountability "in house" with the owner of the auto body shop, instead of allowing him to "pass the buck" down the line. When the owner of the shop is mostly accountable, then that often helps ensure a better finished product.
The equipment required to properly repair today's vehicles is very costly, and investing in this equipment and tools shows the auto accident collision repair facility's dedication to their trade. Computerized estimating ability, unibody (frame) equipment, paint booths, welding equipment, and paint mixing stations are a few examples of this equipment.
(2) Tour the shop and look at the quality of work. Examine finished jobs and jobs in progress.
(3) What is the condition of cleanliness and orderliness, or is everything just a mess?
Although price should not be much of a factor (the insurance company is paying), it pays to remember that you get what you pay for in most cases. A cheaper estimate often results in a cheaper repair. A cheaper repair can jeopardize your investment-typically the second largest you'll make, as well as your safety. Keep this in mind when considering price.
- LOWEST PRICE MAY NOT BE BEST FOR YOU. You deserve to have your vehicle repaired, and for the repairs to hold up over time. The auto accident collision repair shop with the lowest estimate in NOT going to be best for you if they got to that position by cutting down on quality of parts and labor that the others are dedicating to the job.
Check to make sure one reason for the lower price is not the substitution of foreign-made imitation parts for genuine "Original Equipment Manufactured" (OEM) parts. As noted elsewhere on this site, there are times when a consumer is not entitled to OEM parts because his vehicle-because of mileage and usage-is so far beyond the useful life of the parts that using OEM parts might entitle the insurance company to a claim of betterment for improving your vehicle.
But for other, more recent vehicles, there is no arguing that OEM is the gold standard. Those parts are much more likely to fit in terms of tolerances than the so-called "Like Kind and Quality Parts". See the next major topic below.
With the ever increasing complexities of today's vehicles components, keeping abreast of the technology needed to properly repair them is critical. Technician training and certification is done through many agencies and programs. Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) is among the most widely recognized and respected of these programs, and I-CAR is another. Many manufacturers and suppliers also offer training, and the certificates earned through any of these sources are typically displayed proudly in plain view of the customer. Participation in training programs is another way to verify a business' commitment to quality and customers.
- ASK ABOUT THE AUTO BODY SHOP TRAINING PROGRAM. In this auto accident repair business, the newer vehicles are so complex that a garage owner cannot possibly hope to keep up to speed on all of the changes for all of the vehicles unless he pays for his staff to attend off premises training programs.
Once you get him to agree on cheating on the deductible, you have no idea whether he is also going to cheat you. A shop that will comply with this request may be simply cutting corners on the repair, not discounting the parts and labor. The question to ask yourself is how many corners will they cut-just enough to save your money, or will they cut as many as possible and make an additional profit also?
- DO NOT FALL INTO FRAUD AGAINST THE INSURANCE COMPANY. Some consumers think that it is smart to find an auto body shop owner who will "play along" with them so that they can avoid paying their deductible on their first party claims. What would you say if the shop owner told you that he could hide or "bury" your deductible if he rises up the price of some items to be paid for by the insurance company? DO NOT GET INTO A RELATIONSHIP WITH A DISHONEST AUTO BODY SHOP OWNER.
What will you do if his work turns out to be unsatisfactory? If you vary from the agreed repairs in any manner through your requests, you may be extremely disappointed with the outcome of the repairs, and you will have very little grounds to seek restitution if you are dissatisfied.
Finally, the insurance companies are out to make examples of those who attempt to defraud them in the claims process, so one had best remember that cheating on your deductible may leave yourself open to prosecution.
Why am I not Entitled to OEM PARTS for Repair of my Eight Year Old Volvo? The Adjuster Wants to Make the Repair Shop use "Quality Replacement Parts", Which is a Fancy Name for Aftermarket Parts.
The insurance company does not have to make your car brand new again: it just has to restore it to pre-accident condition. We all would like to have the use of OEM PARTS for all of our repairs, but at some point in the aging process, a vehicle just is not entitled to be repaired with brand new manufacturer's parts. Of if it is so repaired, the insurance company is entitled to an a betterment or upgrade payment. Your car is probably beyond the point where you can demand new OEM PARTS; but you can ask for rebuilt OEM if the part is important.
Consider the easy case to see the point. If your Volvo were eighteen years old instead of eight years old would you still even bother to make that argument demanding OEM PARTS? Probably not, because you can understand that after eighteen years, the wear and tear on original parts means that they have lost most of their useful life value.
Thus, if at your insistence the insurer was forced to replace tired old fully depreciated parts with brand new OEM PARTS, wouldn't you agree that you had received a substantial betterment or upgrade in your vehicle? Thus, the adjuster could be entitled to demand a betterment payment from you.
In your case, brand new aftermarket parts might be a lot better than your tired OEM PARTS. So, for some parts, aftermarket replacement will be desirable. But then, it could depend upon the part being replaced. For example, one might want a rebuilt OEM generator rather than a brand new aftermarket generator since most of us think that with such important mechanical parts, the original Volvo generator, even if rebuilt, will be superior to the aftermarket.
So I would approach this in that manner: looking at the wear of the original part and whether it makes sense to opt for a rebuilt OEM PART or to take a brand new aftermarket part.
What About the Money? Can I Just Take it and Run, or do I Have to Repair Your Vehicle?
You are free to keep the money that the insurance company will pay for the restoration costs for your vehicle, EXCEPT in those cases where YOUR VEHICLE HAS BEEN FINANCED. In that case, the lienholder wants to protect its security and to make sure that it retains sufficient value to pay off the balance of your loan. Thus, it will insist on your repairing the vehicle. Of course other arrangements can be made depending upon the amount owing on the loan and the value of your vehicle.
- Do I have to get my vehicle repaired with the money or can I keep it?
Yes. It is their obligation to pay you for the damage done to your asset, and if there is no lienholder of title, then the insurance company does not even care what you do with the money. Of course if there is a lienholder, the insurance company is bound to protect their interests in the asset, and hence they will include the lienholder's name on the check along with your name. An alternative to this is when they put the auto collision repair shop on the check as a means to ensure you repair the vehicle and preserve the interest of the lienholder.
- Does the insurance company still have to pay even if I'm not having my vehicle repaired?
Useful Resources for Auto Accident Property Damage Questions and Insurance Adjuster Relationships
Car Accidents: Totaled, Repair, Valuation, Your Insurance Claim Rights
Auto body shop witness car accident damage
DIMINISHED VALUE-What it is And How to Make a Claim For a Cash Insurance Settlement
FAQ: Diminished Value Insurance Claims Explained in Answers by Doctor Settlement, J.D.-Auto Accident Insurance Claim Expert
Smartest Way to Buy Automobile Insurance Coverage for Liability, BI, PIP, UIM, Comprehensive, Auto collision to Protect Yourself and Passengers
Personal Injury Insurance Claim: Insurance Company Payment of Medical Expenses as Incurred
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